What is the peritoneum?

It is a thin and transparent membrane which covers the inner surface of the peritoneal and pelvic cavities as well as all internal organs found inside them (liver, spleen, intestine, uterus, ovaries).

This membrane consists of two layers: the first one is wrapped around the inner surface of the pelvic walls (and is called the parietal peritoneum) and the second one is wrapped around the internal organs and keeps them in position in relation to the peritoneal cavity (visceral peritoneum). The space formed between the two peritoneal layers is called the peritoneal cavity. This cavity contains fluid which serves as lubricant, allowing the two layers to slide on one another, thus facilitating the active and passive movement of abdominal organs.